By the most prevalent bulk material used in the production of solar cell is crystalline silicon. Solar cells are used to turn light energy into electrical power. They are generally comprised of a certain or numerous semiconductor materials, like crystalline silicon, gallium, cadmium telluride or copper indium diselenide.
Solar cells comprised of crystalline silicon require that pure crystalline silicon with high crystal quality be used. Four bonding electrons are placed in the outer shell of a crystalline silicon atom. Two electrons from adjacent atoms in the crystal lattice should bond so as to form a firm electron development. Crystalline silicon manages to acquire a noble gas configuration with 8 outer electrons by creating stable bonds with 4 neighboring electrons. The electrons are provided with the means to move easily if they are divided with light or heat, which results in making a hole in the crystal lattice. This process is termed as intrinsic conductivity.
The procedure for intrinsic conductivity does not produce electricity, however. For the production of electricity, doping atoms (essentially impurities) are added into the crystal lattice of the crystalline silicon. These atoms usually posses an extra electron (such as phosphorous) or just one electron less (as is the case of boron), in their outer shell, when compared to crystalline silicon. The phrase “negative doping” or “n-doping” is attributed to the method that uses phosphorous and the phrase “positive doping” or “p-doping” is used to describe the method that uses boron.
An electrical charge could be carried in the method using n-doping, as the electron can move about easily in the crystal lattice of the crystalline silicon. There will be a missing bonding electron for every bonding born atom in the crystal lattice in the p-doping procedure. This phenomenon allows the electrons from crystalline silicon atoms to fill in the gaps created by the missing bonding electrons, opening up a new hole elsewhere. Impurity conduction is the right term used to describe this method that is really based on these doping atoms.
A positive-negative junction is formed when ever both positively and negatively doped semiconductor layers are united. This coming together of crystalline silicon permits superfluous electrons from the n-semiconductor to diffuse into the positive semiconductor layer and then form an area called the “space charge region”. Negatively charged doping atoms stay in the p-region, while positively charged doping atoms remain in the n-region of the transition. Conflicting the movement of the charge carriers, an electrical field is formed which forces diffusion to eventually discontinue. This positive-negative semiconductor is what is commonly known as a solar cell. Photons are drawn in by the electrons when light hits the solar cell. Electron bonds are divided by this gust of energy. The electrons that are released are drawn through the electrical field in the n-region. The holes that appear have a tendency to migrate in the opposite direction into the p-region. This process is what turns sunlight into electrical energy and is known as the photovoltaic effect.